JRSSEM 2022, Vol. 02, No. 2, 188 202
E-ISSN: 2807 - 6311, P-ISSN: 2807 - 6494
DOI : 10.36418/jrssem.v2i2.251 https://jrssem.publikasiindonesia.id/index.php/jrssem/index
THE STUDY OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION MODELS: A
LITERATURE REVIEW
Dian Yulia Sari
Ministry of Finance Republic Indonesia
e-mail: dian.yu[email protected]enkeu.go.id
*Correspondence: dianyuliasari6[email protected]l.com
Submitted: 02 August 2022, Revised: 22 August 2022, Accepted: 19 September 2022
Abstract. Peter Senge’s learning organization model, “The Five Building Blocks,” initiated five
elements of learning organization, namely personal mastery, team learning, shared vision, mental
models, and systems thinking. Inspired by this model, several developed learning organization
models and the elements are proposed by the scholars in the last two decades in order to preserve
the needs of the change world. The aims of this study are to analyse the development of learning
organization models and the elements attached to the model. A systematic process of literature
review is implemented as the methodology of the study which critically resulted ten journals to be
investigated. According to the research, three scholars implemented the five building blocks model
from Peter Senge, while the other scholars proposed their studies with developed elements and
learning organization models. The characteristics, the readiness, the perception, and the existing
conditions of the organizations are several factors that affect the learning organization model.
While the differences in the level of how important each element in the learning organization
model is also encourages the development of learning organization model itself. Heretofore, the
Five Building Blocks model is still very relevant to be used by the scholars and become the basis of
learning organization model research in the future.
Keywords: learning organization; model; elements; characteristics; dimension.
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DOI : 10.36418/jrssem.v2i2.251 https://jrssem.publikasiindonesia.id/index.php/jrssem/index
INTRODUCTION
A continuous improvement has
become a demand for every organization
today. Various organization are trying to
improve themselves so as not to be left
behind the development of an increasingly
advanced and globalized world. This
should be a concern for an organization to
change the command style to the
participation style. Organization must
provide opportunities for their members to
always learn and develop so that they can
have a positive impact on the organization.
One of the strategies that must be done is
to develop a learning organization.
Learning organization is a continuous
and planned organization facilitate its
members to be able to continuously
develop and transform themselves, both
collectively and individually, in an effort to
achieve a better result and in accordance
with the perceived needs shared between
the organization and the individuals within
it, (Minister of Finance Republic Indonesia
Decree., 2018). The concept of learning
organization itself was first popularized by
Peter Senge in his book, The Fifth Discipline
(1990). According to (Senge., 1990), the
success of an organization is largely
determined by its ability to develop its
institution into a learning organization. The
book also explain that learning
organization are a place for people who
continuously improve their capacity to
create the results that are truly expected.
Ideally in a learning organization each
individual is able to develop various new
thoughts, freely express his aspiration, and
how each individual continues to learn how
to learn together. To achieve this goal,
(Senge., 1990) suggests the use of five
components of technology, namely:
systems thinking, personal mastery,
mental models, shared vision, and team-
learning.
Several experts also formulate the
notion of learning organization, (Pedler et
al., 1991), stated that a learning
organization means an organization that
facilitates the learning process of all its
members and continues to carry out
positive transformations. This means that
each individual can continue to learn, in line
with organizational changes for the better.
Furthermore, (Watkins and Marsick., 1993)
add that learning organizations will
continue to learn, transform, empower
communities, emphasize collaboration and
group learning process, strongly encourage
open discussion, and recognize that there
is interdependence between organizations
and individuals within them. Moreover,
(Marquardt., 1996) argues that a learning
organization is an organization that
powerfully and collectively learns and
continues to transform for the better in
collecting, managing, and using the
knowledge for organizational success.
The importance of sharing in the
context of a learning organization is not
only beneficial for the continuity of the
organization in the face of change and
uncertainty that is happening. Learning
organization is an investment. Learning
that has become a culture can encourage
individuals and organizations to increase
knowledge, competence, and improve
performance on an ongoing basis. Until the
time comes, will encourage continuous
improvement, support the achievement of
goals, enrich innovation, and the ability to
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deal with change, (Senge.,1990)
While the objective of Learning
organization according to (Minister of
Finance Decree Republic Indonesia., 2018)
are, anticipating the accelerated change,
disruption and uncertainty at national and
global levels by creating an agile, adaptive
and innovative organization; enhancing a
collaborative, digital, creative, and
independent learning culture for all
employees; improving the competence of
reliable human resources, accountable,
competent, and ability to complete the
tasks effectively and efficiently; improving
the individual, team, and organizational
performance in achieving the vision,
mission, and the strategic objectives of the
organization; maintaining the intellectual
assets of the organization through
knowledge management; and improving
the culture of sharing knowledge both at
the individuals, teams and organizations.
The learning organization itself opens
opportunities for organizations to continue
to grow following changes in the
environment, competition, technology, and
stakeholder demands. Along the way, the
model of learning organization continues
to develop. On that basis, this study will
analyses the development of the learning
organization model implemented by the
scholars in the last two decades and the
element attached to the model.
METHODS
The study conducted a traditional
research method called literature review.
According to (Cooper., 2010), literature
review is a research that examines and
critically reviews the knowledge, the ideas,
and or findings contained in the body of
academically oriented literature, and
formulates theoretical and methodological
contributions to a certain topic.
This study analyses the development of
learning organizations models and their
elements proposed by the scholars since
the Five Building Blocks model from Peter
Senge. The search for the articles and the
journals is done through the research gate,
google search, and google scholar with the
keywords of learning organization, learning
organization models, and learning
organization elements in both Bahasa and
English. The criteria for the articles and
journals tracked include the period of the
publishing journals in the range of the last
20 years from 2002 to 2022 with; learning
organization, learning organization
models, and learning organization
elements as the research theme; and the
types of journals are in original and full text
journals.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For the last three decades a numerous
studies of learning organization models
have come up as an essential discussion to
the scholars. The change of the elements of
learning organization has been proposed
by the scholars as a development and
improvement of the five building blocks
model pioneered by Peter Senge. The
following table of Learning Organization
Models presents several key development
of learning organization models and the
differences of the elements implemented
to the models.
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DOI : 10.36418/jrssem.v2i2.251 https://jrssem.publikasiindonesia.id/index.php/jrssem/index
Table 1. The Learning Organization Models
The Model
The Author
LO Elements
The five building blocks
(Peter Senge, 1990)
Personal Mastery, Team Learning, Shared
Vision, Mental Models, Systems Thinking
The eleven characteristics
of a learning company
Pedler et al (1991)
Internal exchange, Enabling structure,
Reward flexibility, Inter-company learning,
Informing, Learning approach to strategy,
The formative accounting and control, The
participative policy making, The boundary
workers as environmental scanners, Self-
development opportunities for all, and
Learning climate.
Dimension of Learning
Organization
Questionnaire (DLOQ)
(Watkins and Marsick,
1993), (2003)
Empowerment, Inquiry and dialogue,
Team learning, Continuous learning,
Strategic leadership, System connection,
and Embedded system.
Five factors of readiness
Wick and Leon (1995)
Planning, Leadership, Innovation,
Information dissemination, and
Implementation.
Learning Organizations
five indicators
(Marquardt, 1996)
People Empowerment, Technology
Management, Learning Dynamics,
Organizational Transformation,
Knowledge Management.
The five strategic
building blocks
Goh and Richard
(1997)
Experimentation and rewards, Clarity of
organizational mission and vision, Team
problem-solving, Leadership commitment
and empowerment, and Effective transfer
of knowledge.
Learning Organization
Process Survey
Udai Pareek (2003)
Synergy, Information flow, Holistic frame,
Shared vision, Emotional maturity,
Strategic trust, Empowerment, Learning.
The reliability and validity
of the Organizational
Learning
(Mets and Torokoff,
2007)
Internal Environment and Learning, Main
Process for the scale of employee, Main
Process for the scale for managers, Shared
values, and Internal Environment, Goals
and Development.
The Learning Security
Model
(Garvin et al, 2008)
Admitting new concept, psychological
security, learning process, welcoming
differences, learning encouraging.
The Learning Climate
(Jamali et al, 2008)
Systematic employee development,
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Model
Employee participation, Learning reward
systems, Learning climate, Constant
experimentation.
An Open Systems of
Learning Organization
Liesbsch (2011)
Relative dynamic systems, Self-organized
in an adequate way and structure-
determined, Relative opened systems, and
Relative underdetermined systems.
An Integrated Learning
Organization Model
(Waheed et al, 2015)
Self-development, Innovation, Leadership
facilitation, Information sharing,
Empowerment, Collective collaboration.
The Five Critical Elements
of learning Organization
(Shin et al, 2016)
Empowering at all levels, gathering and
integrating external information,
establishing and communicating a clear
sense of direction and purpose,
accumulating and sharing internal
knowledge, challenging the status quo
and enabling creativity.
Learning Organization
Management model
DAmato et al (2016)
Shared responsibility, Total Transparency,
Top down and bottom up approach,
People and team increasingly self-
managed, Intrinsic and based on
involvement and job quality, Creation of
learning infrastructures that facilitate
learning, Build the better context to obtain
the best people.
A Collective
Organizational Model
(Lau et al, 2019)
Processes, Principles, Purposes.
The Learning
Organization Dimension
(Wetzel et al, 2019)
Discipline, decision making, desire,
equality.
Adaptive Learning
Organization Model
(JoshBersin, 2020)
Leadership, Partnership, Innovation;
Intelligence, Analytics, Velocity; Agility,
Experience, Value.
Since the first introduced by Senge in
the early 90s, numerous theories regarding
learning organization have been proposed
by organizational experts. According to
table 1 above, the five building blocks by
(Senge., 1990) is a commencement of a
learning organization model. The model
integrates five elements which include
personal mastery, team learning, shared
vision, mental models, and systems
thinking. It is believed that learning
organization is a place where collective
thoughts are spread, new thinking patterns
are raised, and how learning together is
being continuously developed for all
individuals in the organization (Senge.,