JRSSEM 2021, Vol. 1, No. 1, 31 – 45
E-ISSN: 2807 - 6311, P-ISSN: 2807 - 6494
DOI :10.36418/jrssem.v1i1 https://jrssem.publikasiindonesia.id/index.php/jrssem/index
LITERATURE REVIEW: GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF
MENTAL REVOLUTION TO IMPROVE CHARACTERISTIC
OF CITIZEN, ESPECIALLY AMONG GENERATION Z
Renita Wildy Hernanda
1*
Ane Rahma Sapitri
2
Khofifah Al Adawiyah
3
Riska Amalia
4
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
5
1,2,3,4,5
Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
1
*Correspondence: [email protected]upi.edu
Submitted: 16 August 2021, Revise : 23 August 2021, Accepted: 27 August 2021
Abstract. The character development of citizens, especially among the Z generation is something
that must be considered. The increase in the character of Generation Z can be influenced by
psychological conditions that can be pursued through the application of character education.
Character development education is a process that is always ongoing and will never end. To create
the characteristics of citizens who make good citizens (good citizenship), it can be done through
the mental revolution movement. The method used in this study is a literature review related to
the mental revolution and the characteristics of citizens, especially among Generation Z. The results
of this study state that improving the characteristics is very necessary related to improving the
welfare of the country and supporting the progress of the country during increasingly competitive
global competition. So, the mental revolution can be effort to improve the character education of
citizens, through the cultivation of multicultural values.
Keywords: mental revolution; characteristics; citizen; generation Z.
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 32
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
INTRODUCTION
The world today has entered the era of
the industrial revolution 4.0 which can be
seen with the development of technology
that is all digital and all-internet. The rapid
development of technology has an impact
on humans both biologically,
psychologically, and socially.
The development of the character of
citizens, especially among Generation Z, is
something that must be considered. The
improvement of the character of
Generation Z, which is currently strongly
influenced by psychological conditions, can
be pursued through the application of
character education. Character
development education is a process that is
always ongoing and will never end.
Character is closely related to a
person's character in his life. As has been
explained, the rapid development of
information technology can affect the
development of the characteristics of
citizens. Advances in technology and
communication that shorten interactions
between regions with one another bring
foreign influences to Indonesia (Budiarto,
2020). Quoting Herling Amran, a member
of Commission X, he said, In my opinion,
Indonesia is currently in a state of 'Good
Moral Emergency. The government must
immediately conduct a comprehensive
evaluation related to the implementation of
character education or the moral content
that embodies our national education
system.
In the realm of psychology, personality
is known in two forms of explanation,
namely mental and character. Therefore,
the process of increasing the characteristics
of generation Z cannot be separated from
the influence of one's psychological factors.
Discussions related to mental focus on
mental health and mental imbalances of a
person.
Citizens who have good characteristics
can be seen, one of them from the morals
and attitudes of the person, of course, they
must reflect the values of Pancasila. To
create the characteristics of citizens who
make (good citizens good citizenship) it
can be done through the mental revolution
movement.
The mental revolution must start from
education as the basis, considering that the
role of education is very strategic in
shaping the mentality of generation Z.
Mental revolution is a movement for self-
improvement such as evaluation that is in
line with the goals of national education.
Moral emergency is the responsibility
of all citizens. So that the evaluation od
character education or the content of moral
education must be carried out
comprehensively. Through a mental
revolution, it can produce a sovereign
Indonesian education resilience so that the
characteristics/personality of citizens,
especially Generation Z, are socially and
culturally formed and reflect the values of
Pancasila.
METHODS
Type of research is qualitative with a
research design using the literature review,
which is a research methodology that aims
33 | Literature Review Picture of Mental Revolution to Improve Citizenship Characteristics,
Especially Among Generation Z
to collect and extract the essence of
previous research and analyze several
overviews of experts written in the text
(Snyder, 2019). The data sources are
obtained from scientific journals, either in
books or digitally.
This study has a data management
plan, that is, after completing data
collection activities, it is continued by
comparing research topics/problems with
sources/literature used both from
sourcebooks and from research journals
conducted online.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Generation Z or Gen Z is referred to as
the generation born after generation Y.
According to (Snyder, 2019), the group of
people who belong to this generation is
those born in 1997 to 2012 which by 2021
they are around 9 -24 years old. In
developmental psychology theory
according to (Hetherington & Santrock,
2007), ages 9 to 24 years can be included
in the category of adolescence and
transition to early adulthood. Based on this
in psychology, the characteristics of
Generation Z can be described as
characteristics of adolescents and the
transition to early adulthood.
According to (Santrock, 2003).,
adolescence is not the end of personality
formation. But adolescence is one of the
main stages in the formation of one's
personality. Teenagers spend a lot of time
with their peers. In addition, teenagers
began to receive a lot of information from
the mass media that were already known
and close to them. Therefore, teenagers
become individuals who are open to new
things. The amount of information received
makes adolescents perform information
processing in more depth.
While this early adulthood is a period
for individuals who are still exploring the
career path they want to take, what kind of
individual they want to become, and what
kind of lifestyle they want. So that at this
time, Generation Z needs guidance and
direction from the people around them to
have good behavior following applicable
norms and not to make certain deviations.
Generation Z can be said to be the next
generation of the nation. Indirectly, the
future of the nation will be fought for by
generation Z. So it cannot be denied that
the future of the nation will experience
problems if the formation of the behavior
of the next generation does not
immediately get "special attention" from
the nation's leaders. In shaping the
behavior of the younger generation, a
strategy is needed, such as a mental
revolution. The Constitution of the World
Health Organization (Ni et al., 2020) states
that health is one of the basic human rights
regardless of race, religion, creed, political,
economic, or social condition. In this case,
Generation Z is part of the citizens who
have the right to find a peaceful resolution.
Concerning the next generation of the
nation, one thing that needs to be
considered is starting from the
characteristics of citizens to create good
citizenship. There needs to be a mental
revolution as a movement for change and
mental strengthening of citizens and the
application of Pancasila values. The mental
revolution must start from education as the
basis, considering that the role of
education is very strategic in shaping the
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 34
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
mentality of generation Z. Mental
revolution is a movement for self-
improvement such as evaluation that is in
line with the goals of national education.
The results of the research picture
related to how the mental revolution and
the characteristics of citizens, especially in
generation Z, from several literature
sources that have been selected by
researchers so that they are worthy of
being presented are as follows:
35 | Literature Review Picture of Mental Revolution to Improve Citizenship Characteristics,
Especially Among Generation Z
Table 1.1 Search Results
N
o
Author
Name
(Year)
Title,
Journal
Name
(Vol,
No)
Method
(Design,
Subject/Object
)
Research Results
Databas
e Source
1.
(Suwar
dana,
2018)
Industri
al
Revoluti
on 4.0
Based
on
Mental
Revoluti
on (Vol
1, No 2)
Qualitativ
e
Research
1. Mental revolution is a
change in the value system
that applies to people who
become role models for
behavior,
2. changes in people's
mentality will be needed to
advance the Indonesian
nation during increasingly
competitive global
competition.
3. The human mental
structure is built on three
things. First, the way of
thinking (mindset); both
ways to believe
(transcendental value);
three ways to behave
(behavioral approach)
Google
Scholar
2.
(Sholek
hah,
2019)
Charact
er
educati
on
through
the
mental
revoluti
on in
the
disrupti
ve era
(Vol 6,
Qualitativ
e
research
In the process of forming character
education in the disruptive era,
there are five parts of character
education through the mental
revolution in tackling the
phenomenon that occurs in the
Indonesian nation, including:
1. ways of thinking (thought
patterns)
2. how to believe (spiritual-heart)
3. how to behave and behave
4. honestly with the responsibility
5. of hard work
Google
Scholar
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 36
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
No.1)
3.
(Asrori,
2016)
The role
of
charact
er
educati
on
through
mental
revoluti
on to
build
the
nation's
generati
on (Vol
2, No.2)
Qualitativ
e
research
on
1. mental revolution is a
movement that aims to
develop and control together
to realize a just and civilized
Indonesian nation. The
2. strategic values of mental
revolution include integrity,
work ethic, and cooperation.
3. Character education needs to
be familiarized and able to
make the children of this
nation advanced with dignity.
4. six main characters as pillars of
human character that can be
used to measure and assess
human character and behavior
in specific matters, namely 1)
Respect (respect), 2)
Responsibility (responsibility),
3) Citizenship Civic Duty
(citizenship awareness). ), (4)
Fairness (fairness and honesty),
5) Caring (care and willingness
to share), and 6) Citizenship
(Citizenship).
Google
Scholar
4.
(Widjias
tuti &
Purwan
to,
2016)
Formati
on of
Young
Generat
ion
Behavio
r
Throug
h
Mental
Revoluti
on
Qualitativ
e
research,
the
juridical-
sociologi
cal
approach
of
1. our youth in general is still
lacking in understanding what
is meant by mental revolution.
There are still differences of
opinion about the benchmark
to determine the mental
revolution.
2. In carrying out a mental
revolution, it does not have to
be violent but with wise
actions, namely by educating,
teaching, and telling/setting an
Google
Scholar
37 | Literature Review Picture of Mental Revolution to Improve Citizenship Characteristics,
Especially Among Generation Z
example with positive behavior
and ways of thinking.
5.
(Muslih
& Ulfah,
2020)
Urgenc
y
Charact
eristics
of
Democr
atic
Citizens
in the
Twenty-
First
Century
(Vol 7,
No 2)
Qualitativ
e
Descripti
ve
Conceptually, a citizen should have
five main characteristics, namely:
identity, freedom to enjoy rights
certain obligations, fulfill related
obligations, level of interest and
involvement in public affairs, level
and ownership of basic social
values
characteristic of citizens in the 21st
century, namely: (1) ability to
recognize and approach problems
as global citizens, (2) the ability to
cooperate with others and assume
responsibility for their roles or
obligations in society, (3) the
ability to understand, accept, and
respect cultural differences, (4) the
ability to think critically and
systematically, (5) have sensitivity
to and defend rights human rights
(such as the rights of women,
ethnic minorities, and so on, (6) the
ability to change lifestyles and
staple food patterns that are used
to protect the environment, (7) the
ability to resolve conflicts
peacefully without violence, (8) the
willingness and ability to
participate in political life at the
local, national, and international
levels of government.
6.
(Syapar
uddin,
2020)
The role
of non-
formal
educati
on and
Non-
statistical
descriptiv
e
qualitativ
moral or decency” is the true
value for humans.
a. Moral is the behavior of human
life, which is based on awareness,
Google
Scholar
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 38
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
moral
educati
on
facilities
. Journal
of non-
formal
educati
on, 1(1),
173-186
e analysis
that he is bound by the necessity
to achieve the good following the
values and norms that apply in his
environment.
b. Moral as a set of ideas about the
behavior of life, with a certain basic
color that is held by a group of
people in a certain environment.
C Moral is teaching about good life
behavior based on a certain view
of life or religion.
In carrying out these actions,
humans are driven by three
elements, namely: a. The will is the
impetus in the human soul that
gives humans a reason to do
actions. b. The embodiment of the
will in the form of ways of doing
actions in all situations and
conditions. c. The act was done
consciously and it is this awareness
that gives the pattern and color of
the action
7.
(Noor,
2016)
Mental
Revoluti
on
Movem
ent To
Improv
e
Citizen
Persona
lity
Educati
on.
Pedago
gics
Journal
of
Educati
Descripti
ve
1. The mental revolution
movement is an activity to
improve the education of
citizens' personalities to
become good Indonesian
citizens.
2. Mental revolution activities
following the nation's socio-
cultural, namely a. Content
Integration, integrating
various cultures and groups; b.
The knowledge construction
process, understanding the
implications of culture into
learning (discipline); c. An
equity pedagogy, adapting
teaching methods to
Google
Scholar
39 | Literature Review Picture of Mental Revolution to Improve Citizenship Characteristics,
Especially Among Generation Z
on,
March
2016,
Volume
11
Number
, (7
13 )
individual learning abilities to
facilitate individual
achievement both racial,
cultural, and social. d.
Prejudice reduction,
identifying the characteristics
of individuals and their ways
of learning; and e.
Empowering school culture,
trains individuals in groups to
participate, interact with all
members of the community.
8.
(Lilura,
2018)
Mental
Revoluti
on in
Shaping
Charact
er
Throug
h
Multicul
tural
Educati
on
Values.
Vol. 7
No.
January
1, 2018.
descriptiv
e
literature
review
Building a good mentality can be
realized with multicultural values
education, which includes various
things such as, culture, ethnicity,
gender, social and religion which
tend to be more comprehensive
for typical Indonesian people.
These values can help
revolutionize the mentality of the
Indonesian nation to be more
advanced and able to compete
with the outside world,
multiculturalism can open minds
with more concrete
understandings about the
importance of building and
developing, respecting and
appreciating existing differences
and being able to unite all these
differences become a unity to
achieve the values of Pancasila and
the common goals of the nation.
http://ej
ournal.ia
inpurwo
kerto.ac.
id/index
.php/rau
shanfikr
/article/
view/22
07
9.
(Ni et
al.,
2020)
Mental
health
during
and
after
Study
quality
The Constitution of The World
Health Organization (in Michael Y
Ni, etc., 2020, page 240) express
opinions states that 'health is one
of the fundamental rights of a very
Sagepu
b
Journal/
Australi
an &
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 40
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
protests
, riots,
and
revoluti
ons: A
systema
tic
review.
Volume
54,
Number
3.
January
2020.
human being without distinction
of race, religion, political belief,
economic or social condition.
New
Zealand
Journal
of
Psychiat
ry
1
0.
(Primas
ari et
al.,
2019)
Charact
er
Educati
on for
Today's
Generat
ion (Vol.
12, No
1)
a
qualitativ
e-
descriptiv
e
approach
with data
observati
on
methods
1. Character education today is
very important and a necessity
as an effort by the
government and schools in
shaping the character of the
nation's generation. The
formation of a person's
character requires
communities of character,
which consist of family,
schools, religious institutions,
media, government, and
various parties that influence
the younger generation.
2. There are 5 values of the
nation's character to become
a superior human being,
which becomes a reference for
the commitment to the
implementation of character
education, namely; (1)
Indonesian people who have
good morals, character, and
behavior; (2) achieve
intelligent and rational
society; (3) Indonesian people
https://j
urnal.un
ivpgri-
palemb
ang.ac.i
d/index.
php/Pro
sidingp
ps/articl
e/view/
2672
41 | Literature Review Picture of Mental Revolution to Improve Citizenship Characteristics,
Especially Among Generation Z
in the future are people who
are innovative and continue to
pursue progress; (4)
strengthen the spirit and
continue to look for solutions
in various difficulties; and (5)
Indonesian people must
become true patriots, love the
nation, country and
homeland.
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 42
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
CHARACTERISTICS OF CITIZENS
Citizens are a group of people who live
and live in a certain area, who must submit
and obey the applicable regulations in their
country properly and responsibly.
Conceptually, a citizen should have five
main characteristics, namely: identity,
freedom to enjoy certain rights, fulfill
related obligations, level of interest and
involvement in public affairs, level and
ownership of basic social values (Muslih &
Ulfah, 2020). The role and position of
citizens in a country are needed to run a
country. Therefore, it is necessary to form
the characteristics of citizens to make their
citizens have good character (good
citizens) who can reflect their country and
produce quality human resources. One way
that can be done in the formation of the
characteristics of good citizens is through
character education.
To realize the vision of national
development, to create a society with
noble, moral, ethical, cultured, and civilized
character based on the Pancasila
philosophy, character education is used as
the basis. Character education and
development is an effort in the process of
instilling character values into individuals to
become human beings with character.
Character education aims as a shield and
self-control so as not to easily fall into
negative characters. The formation of a
person's character requires communities of
character, which consist of family, schools,
religious institutions, media, government,
and various parties that influence the
younger generation. In article 3 of Law no.
20 of 2003 concerning the National
Education System, it is explained that the
function of National Education is to
develop capabilities, shape the character,
and civilization of a dignified nation to
educate the nation's life (No, 20 C.E.).
Currently, character education is very
much needed in shaping the character of
the nation's generation, especially in the
21st century in this era of globalization. In
Character Education for the Present
Generation (Primasari et al., 2019), it is
stated that there are 5 values of the nation's
character to become a superior human
being, which becomes a reference for the
commitment to implementing character
education, namely; (1) Indonesian people
who have good morals, character, and
behavior; (2) achieve intelligent and
rational society; (3) Indonesian people in
the future are people who are innovative
and continue to pursue progress; (4)
strengthen the spirit and continue to look
for solutions in various difficulties; and (5)
Indonesian people must become true
patriots, love the nation, country and
homeland. Character is very important in
building a strong and noble national
civilization. Character development in the
individual dimension of a nation is closely
related to the habits carried out by a person
at the level of habitual instilling values and
morals.
Moral or decency is a value that
actually must exist in humans, morals are
the behavior of songs and as a set of ideas
about that behavior. Morals teach about
the procedures for living well. In the
formation and development of the
characteristics of the Indonesian nation,
especially Generation Z in character
education through the mental revolution in
the disruptive era (Sholekhah, 2019), there
are five parts of character education
43 | Literature Review Picture of Mental Revolution to Improve Citizenship Characteristics,
Especially Among Generation Z
through the mental revolution in tackling
the phenomena that occur in the
Indonesian nation, including:
1. ways of thinking (mindset)
2. how to believe (the spiritual heart)
3. how to behave and behave
4. honestly with the responsibility
5. of hard work
MENTAL REVOLUTION
In harmony with the character
education of citizens, it is as important as
the mental revolution movement that must
be carried out immediately. The concept
offered by the President of Indonesia, Joko
Widodo, is that there are three elaborations
of dimensions in Indonesian human
development, namely health, intelligence,
and personality. Based on the search
results, the mental revolution movement as
an effort to improve the characteristics of
citizens is something that must be done.
Changes in people's mentality greatly
affect the welfare of the country, especially
in terms of advancing the Indonesian
nation during increasingly competitive
global competition.
Most of today's young generation still
lacks an understanding of what is meant by
mental revolution. It should be understood
that the human mental structure is built on
three things. First, the way of thinking
(mindset); both ways to believe
(transcendental value); the three ways to
behave (behavioral approach) (Suwardana,
2018).
The mental revolution starts from
education, given that education is a
strategic thing in the mental formation of
citizens, especially generatiQon Z. Mental
revolution is a change in the value system
that applies to people who become role
models for behavior (Suwardana, 2018).
In connection with the description that
the mental revolution is a movement to
improve the education of citizens'
personalities to become good citizenship.
The Mental Revolution Movement to
Improve Citizenship Personality Education
(Noor, 2016). mentions several mental
revolution activities that are following the
Indonesian socio-culture, namely:
a. Content Integration, integrating various
cultures and groups
b. The knowledge construction process,
understanding cultural implications into
learning (discipline)
c. An equity pedagogy, adapting teaching
methods to individual learning abilities
to facilitate individual achievement both
racial, cultural, and social.
d. Prejudice reduction, identifying
individual characteristics and their way
of learning
e. Empowering school culture, training
individuals to the group to participate,
interact with all members of the
community.
Mental revolution as a step to improve
the characteristics of citizens does not
mean that it has to be done with violence,
but in its implementation, it must be done
wisely, namely by educating, teaching, and
telling/giving examples with positive
behavior.
The mental revolution movement is an
activity to improve the personality
education of citizens to become good
Indonesian citizens (Noor, 2016). Based on
this statement, it is clear that the mental
revolution is an effort to improve the
Renita Wildy Hernanda, Ane Rahma Sapitri, Khofifah Al Adawiyah, Riska Amalia, | 44
Dwi Iman Muthaqin
personality of citizens, one of the goals is
to increase the characteristics. As has been
explained that in the process of mental
development/improvement, it can be done
with multicultural values education such as
culture, ethnicity, gender, social and
religion (Lilura, 2018). These values can
revolutionize the mentality of the
Indonesian nation, especially generation Z
to be more advanced in the future and able
to compete with the outside world. Starting
from instilling the moral values of Pancasila,
respecting differences and uniting all
differences will increase the sense of
nationalism of the Indonesian nation.
CONCLUSIONS
The role and position of citizens in a
country is needed to run a country, so it is
necessary to develop the characteristics of
citizens (Civic disposition) towards a better
direction towards Good Citizenship.
Therefore, a Mental Revolution Movement
is needed as an effort to improve the
characteristics of citizens, especially
Generation Z who will later become the
nation's next generation.
The picture of mental revolution as an
effort to improve the characteristics of
citizens must begin with wise steps, namely
through education. Education and learning
of multicultural values such as culture,
ethnicity, gender, social, and religion can
improve the characteristics of good citizens
by understanding differences to build an
attitude of nationalism to unite existing
differences.
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